Tag Archives: Culturi şi limbi străine

Pentru un vorbitor nativ de engleză, limba română este printre cele mai uşor de asimilat, la polul opus fiind limba maghiară

Image result for koreanPentru vorbitorii nativi de limbă engleză care vor să înveţe o limbă străină, limba maghiară este una dintre cele mai dificile limbi din lume. Dacă eşti vorbitor nativ de limbă engleză şi doreşti să înveţi o limbă străină rapid, ar trebui să începi cu limba română şi să închei cu limba coreeană, relevă studiul realizat de Institutul pentru Serviciul Extern (FSI) din Statele Unite. FSI, instituţie care instruieşte diplomaţi, a împărţit limbile internaţionale în patru categorii şi subliniază că pentru a învăţa limba coreeană sunt necesare 2.200 de ore de studiu.

articolul integral, la rador.ro 

 

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5 Things YOU DON’T SAY to Germans

“Whistled Languages” Reveal How the Brain Processes Information

Image result for Whistled LanguagesBefore electronic communications became a ubiquitous part of people’s lives, rural villagers created whistled versions of their native languages to speak from hillside to hillside or even house to house.

Herodotus mentioned whistled languages in the fourth book of his work The Histories, but until recently linguists had done little research on the sounds and meanings of this now endangered form of communication.

New investigations have discovered the presence of whistled speech all over the globe. About 70 populations worldwide communicate this way, a far greater number than the dozen or so groups that had been previously identified.

Linguists have tried to promote interest in these languages—and schools in the Canary Islands now teach its local variant. A whistled language represents both a cultural heritage and a way to study how the brain processes information.

continuarea articolului, la sursa: Scientific American

By Julien Meyer

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De ce este latina o limbă moartă?

Image result for latin languageDeşi influenţa limbii latine poate fi observată în multe limbi moderne, aceasta nu mai este o limbă vorbită în mod obişnuit.

Când Biserica Catolică a reuşit să capete influenţă în Roma antică, latina a devenit limba oficială a Imperiului Roman. Latina era o limbă care se utiliza la nivel internaţional. Acum, latina este considerată o limbă moartă, ceea ce înseamnă că este încă vorbită, dar nu mai există vorbitori nativi (sanscrita este o altă limbă moartă)

Latina nu a murit. De fapt, aceasta s-a transformat în franceză, spaniolă, portugheză, italiană sau română. Aceste limbi sunt cunoscute cu denumirea de limbi romanice.

În toate cele cinci limbi se regăseşte gramatica, timpurile şi termeni specifici care îşi au originile în limba latină. Latina clasică este dificilă, fiecare cuvânt fiind modificat de timp, caz, voce, aspect, persoană, număr, gen şi mod.

Latina vulgară reprezintă variantă simplificată a limbii latine clasice care a supravieţuit pentru puţin timp, modificându-se în diferite limbi locale. La sfârşitul secolului VI, locuitorii din diferite zone ale imperiului nu se mai puteau înţelege între ei.

Cu toate acestea, datorită prevalenţei limbii latine, în primele etape ale creaţiilor literare, ştiinţifice şi medicale din vest, limba nu a devenit niciodată dispărută. Astăzi, latina este utilizată în diferite domenii tehnice, în terminologia medicală, taxonomie şi clasificarea ştiinţifică a speciilor.

Sursa: Seeker

by Oana Bujor

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Limba franceză devine mai simplă din această toamnă. Ce schimbări vor avea loc

indexReforma ortografică, votată în urmă cu 26 de ani şi care prevede asimilarea unor grupuri de litere şi eliminarea accentului circumflex al unor cuvinte ale limbii franceze, va intra în vigoare din noul an de învăţământ, în scopul simplificării limbii, informează site-ul postului MBFTV.

În total, circa 2.400 de cuvinte vor fi simplificate, iar accentul circumflex va dispărea în unele cazuri.

Modificările, care vor intra în vigoare în noul an de învăţământ, sunt prevăzute în reforma ortografică aprobată în anul 1990 de Academia Franceză.

Spre exemplu, cuvântul „oignon” („ceapă”) va fi scris „ognon”, iar „nénuphar” („nufăr”) se va scrie „nénufar”. Alte exemple sunt „week-end” care se va scrie „weekend”, „coût” („cost”), care pierde accentul circumflex şi devine „cout”, şi „disparaître” („a dispărea”), care va fi scris „disparaitre”. În total, 2.400 de cuvinte vor suferi modificări.

Reformele nu sunt agreate însă de toţi specialiştii. „Este adevărat că accentul circumflex nu este mare lucru”, admite Julien Soulié, profesor de limbi clasice, citat de TF1.

„Dar cum procedăm, ştergem date din istoria Franţei sub pretextul că sunt greu de memorat? Nu. Este mai uşor ca, în loc să îngrijeşti un bolnav, să îi spargi termometrul!? Este mai uşoară facilitarea scrierii decât corectarea greşelilor de ortografie ale elevilor?!”, subliniază profesorul.

„Aş vrea să asigur pe toată lumea că accentul circumflex nu va dispărea, pentru că cele două ortografii vor putea fi utilizate în continuare”, a dat asigurări ministrul francez Educaţiei, Najat Vallaud Belkacem.

Sursa: Mediafax

preluare de la sursa

10 Tips and Tricks to Learn Any Language

Image result for languageMatthew Youlden speaks nine languages fluently and understands more than a dozen more. We work in the same office in Berlin so I constantly hear him using his skills, switching from language to language like a chameleon changing colors. In fact, for the longest time I didn’t even know he was British.

When I told Matthew how I’ve been struggling to merely pick up a second language, he had the following advice for me. If you believe that you can never become bilingual, take note!

1. KNOW WHY YOU’RE DOING IT

This might sound obvious, but if you don’t have a good reason to learn a language, you are less likely to stay motivated over the long-run. Wanting to impress English-speakers with your French is not a very good reason; wanting to get to know a French person in his or her own language is another matter entirely. No matter your reason, once you’ve decided on a language, it’s crucial to commit:

“OK, I want to learn this and I’m therefore going to do as much as I can in this language, with this language and for this language.”

2. FIND A PARTNER

Matthew learned several languages together with his twin brother Michael (they tackled their first foreign language, Greek, when they were only eight years old!). Matthew and Michael, or the Super Polyglot Bros. as I’d like to now refer to them, gained their superpowers from good-ol’, healthy sibling rivalry:

“We were very motivated, and we still are. We push each other to really go for it. So if he realizes that I’m doing more than he is he’ll get a bit jealous and then try and outdo me (maybe because he’s my twin) – and the other way round.”

Even if you can’t get a sibling to join you on your language adventure, having any kind of partner will push both of you to always try just a little bit harder and stay with it:

“I think it’s a really great way of actually going about it. You have someone with whom you can speak, and that’s the idea behind learning a language.”

3. TALK TO YOURSELF

When you have no one else to speak to, there’s nothing wrong with talking to yourself:

“It might sound really weird, but actually speaking to yourself in a language is a great way to practice if you’re not able to use it all the time.”

This can keep new words and phrases fresh in your mind and build up your confidence for the next time you speak with someone.

4. KEEP IT RELEVANT

If you make conversation a goal from the beginning, you are less likely to get lost in textbooks. Talking to people will keep the learning process relevant to you:

“You’re learning a language to be able to use it. You’re not going to speak it to yourself. The creative side is really being able to put the language that you’re learning into a more useful, general, everyday setting – be that through writing songs, generally wanting to speak to people, or using it when you go abroad. You don’t necessarily have to go abroad; you can go to the Greek restaurant down the road and order in Greek.”

5. HAVE FUN WITH IT

Using your new language in any way is a creative act. The Super Polyglot Bros. practiced their Greek by writing and recording songs. Think of some fun ways to practice your new language: make a radio play with a friend, draw a comic strip, write a poem, or simply talk to whomever you can. If you can’t find a way to have fun with the new language, chances are you aren’t following step four.

6. ACT LIKE A CHILD

This is not to say you should throw a tantrum or get food in your hair when you go out to a restaurant, but try learning the way kids do. The idea that children are inherently better learners than adults is proving to be a myth. New research cannot find a direct link between age and the ability to learn. The key to learning as quickly as a child may be to simply take on certain childlike attitudes: for instance, lack of self-consciousness, a desire to play in the language and willingness to make mistakes.

We learn by making mistakes. As kids, we are expected to make mistakes, but as adults mistakes become taboo. Think how an adult is more likely to say, “I can’t”, rather than, “I haven’t learned that yet” (I can’t swim, I can’t drive, I can’t speak Spanish). To be seen failing (or merely struggling) is a social taboo that doesn’t burden children. When it comes to learning a language, admitting that you don’t know everything (and being okay with that) is the key to growth and freedom. Let go of your grown-up inhibitions!

7. LEAVE YOUR COMFORT ZONE

Willingness to make mistakes means being ready to put yourself in potentially embarrassing situations. This can be scary, but it’s the only way to develop and improve. No matter how much you learn, you won’t ever speak a language without putting yourself out there: talk to strangers in the language, ask for directions, order food, try to tell a joke. The more often you do this, the bigger your comfort zone becomes and the more at ease you can be in new situations:

“At the beginning you’re going to encounter difficulties: maybe the pronunciation, maybe the grammar, the syntax, or you don’t really get the sayings. But I think the most important thing is to always develop this feel. Every native speaker has a feel for his or her own language, and that’s basically what makes a native-speaker – whether you can make the language your own.”

8. LISTEN

You must learn to listen before you can speak. Every language sounds strange the first time you hear it, but the more you expose yourself to it the more familiar it becomes, and the easier it is to speak it properly:

“We’re able to pronounce anything, it’s just we’re not used to doing it. For example the rolled r doesn’t exist in my form of English. When I was learning Spanish there were words with the hard r in them like perro and reunión. For me, the best way to go about mastering that is actually to hear it constantly, to listen to it and to kind of visualize or imagine how that is supposed to be pronounced, because for every sound there is a specific part of the mouth or throat that we use in order to achieve that sound.”

9. WATCH PEOPLE TALK

Different languages make different demands on your tongue, lips and throat. Pronunciation is just as much physical as it is mental:

“One way – it might sound a bit strange – is to really look at someone while they’re saying words that use that sound, and then to try to imitate that sound as much as possible. Believe me, it might be difficult at the beginning, but you will. It’s something that is actually quite easily done; you just need to practice it.”

If you can’t watch and imitate a native-speaker in person, watching foreign-language films and TV is a good substitute.

10. DIVE IN

So you’ve made the pledge. How to proceed? Is there a proper way to go about learning? Matthew recommends the 360° maximalist approach: no matter which learning tools you use, it’s crucial to practice your new language every single day:

“I tend to want to absorb as much as possible right from the start. So if I learn something I really, really go for it and try to use it throughout the day. As the week progresses I try to think in it, try to write in it, try to speak to myself even in that language. For me it’s about actually putting what you’re learning into practice – be that writing an email, speaking to yourself, listening to music, listening to the radio. Surrounding yourself, submerging yourself in the new language culture is extremely important.”

Remember, the best possible outcome of speaking a language is for people to speak back to you. Being able to have a simple conversation is a huge reward in itself. Reaching milestones like that early on will make it easier to stay motivated and keep practicing. And don’t worry, you won’t annoy people by speaking their language poorly. If you preface any interaction with, “I’m learning and I’d like to practice…” most people will be patient, encouraging and happy to oblige. Even though there are approximately a billion non-native English-speakers around the world, most of them would rather speak their own language if given a choice. Taking the initiative to step into someone else’s language world can also put them at ease and promote good feelings all around:

“Sure, you can travel abroad speaking your own language, but you’ll get so much more out of it being able to actually feel at ease in the place you are – being able to communicate, to understand, to interact in every situation you could possibly imagine.”

Inspired to get started?
You can learn a language the fast, fun and easy way with Babbel.

By John-Erik Jordan 

sursa: babbel.com

„Pe umerii mei apasa greutatea lumii intregi”. O limba unica si misterioasa va disparea odata cu ea

Gyani Maiya SenGyani Maiya Sen, o femeie de 75 de ani din vestul Nepalului, poarta pe umeri o povara imensa. Spune care are impresia uneori ca toate greutatile din lume apasa pe sufletul ei.

Si asta pentru ca batrana este singura persoana din tara ei si din lume care vorbeste fluent limba kusunda, o limba cu origini necunoscute si o structura a frazelor misterioasa, care a fost tot timpul o provocare pentru lingvisti.

Prin urmare, ea a devenit o atractie pentru organizatii academice sau persoane dormice sa conserve limba ei muribunda.

Madhav Prasad Pokharel, profesor la Universitatea Tribhuwan din Nepal, a cercetat timp de un deceniu limba si tribul kusunda, aflat pe cale de disparitie. El a descris kusunda ca fiind “o limba izolata”, care nu se aseamana cu nicio alta limba din lume.

Kusunda iese din orice tipar si este unica. Din punct de vedere fonologic, morfologic, sintactic si lexical nu este inrudita cu nicio limba de pe pamant”, a spus profesorul si lingvistul Madhav Prasad Pokharel.

Gyani Maiya SenProfesorul nepalez trage un semnal de alarma si spune ca in cazul in care kusunda ar disparea “o parte importanta si unica a mostenirii umanitatii va fi pierduta definitiv”.

Gyani Maiya Sen este constienta de povara imensa care atarna de ea si este trista: “Vorbesc nepaleza, dar sunt foarte trista pentru ca nu pot sa vorbesc limba mea cu oamenii din comunitatea mea. Mai sunt in viata si alti oameni din tribul kusunda, dar niciunul nu intelege si nu vorbeste limba. Cativa oameni kusunda inteleg cateva cuvinte, dar nu pot comunica”.

Limba kusunda va muri odata cu mine”, reflecteaza ea, in timp ce guvernul si academicienii deplang esecul transferarii limbii la generatia urmatoare.

Pana acum cativa ani aceasta limba mai era vorbita de alte doua persoane, Puni Thakuri si fiica lui, Kamala Khatri. Puni a murit, iar fiica lui a parasit tara in cautarea unui loc de munca. Acum nimeni nu mai stie nimic de ea.

In ciuda varstei inaintate, Gyani Maiya Sen inca munceste pentru a-si castiga existenta. Dar cand este in afara programului isi gaseste timp pentru studentii la litere care o viziteaza si care incearca sa invete limba kusunda de la ea. In felul acesta incearca ei sa tina in viata aceasta limba.

Cercetatorii au identificat pana acum trei vocale si 15 consoane in limba kusunda.

sursa